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smash now turn to section one section one you will hear a woman telephoning for information about a festival first you have some time to look at questions 1 to 7 you will see that there is an example that has been done for you on this occasion only the conversation relating to this will be played first good morning Stratton festival box-office how can I help you oh hello my family and I are on holiday in the area and we've seen some posters about the festival this week could you tell me about some of the events please of course first of all are there still tickets available for the Jazz Band on Saturday there are but only 15 pounds the twelve pound seats have all been sold the man says that tickets are available for 15 pounds so 15 has been written in the space now we shall begin you should answer the questions as you listen because you will not hear the recording a second time some carefully and answer questions 1 to 7 good morning Stratton festival box office how can I help you oh hello my family and I are on holiday in the area and we've seen some posters about the festival this week could you tell me about some of the events please of course first of all are there still tickets available for the Jazz Band on Saturday there are but only 15 pounds the 12 pound seats have all been sold ok and the venue is the school isn't it yes that's right the secondary school make sure you don't go to the primary school by mistake and there's an additional performer who isn't mentioned on the posters Carolyn Hart is going to play with the band oh I think I've heard her on the radio doesn't she play the oboe or flutes or something yes the flute she usually plays with Symphony Orchestra's and apparently this is her first time with a jazz band well I'd certainly like to hear her then the next thing I want to ask about is the duck races I saw a poster beside a river what are they exactly well you buy a yellow plastic duck or as many as you like there are poundage and you write your name on each one there'll be several races depending on the number of Ducks taking part and John Stephens a champion swimmer who lives locally is going to start the races all the ducks will be launched into the river at the back of the cinema then they'll float along the river for 500 meters as far as the railway bridge and are there any prizes yes the first duck in each race to arrive at the finishing line wins its owner free tickets for the concert on the last night of the festival you said you can buy a duck I'm sure my children were both want one they're on sale at a stall in the market you can't miss it it's got an enormous sign showing a couple of ducks ok I'll go there this afternoon I'm walking past there yesterday now could you tell me something about the flower show please well admission is free and the show is being held in both wait hall sorry how do you spell that B Y th w a I te bite wait is it easy to find I'm not very familiar with the town yet oh you won't have any problem it's right in the center of Stretton it's the only old building in the town so it's easy to recognize I know it I presume it's open all day yes but if you'd like to see the prizes being awarded for the best flowers you'll need to be there at five o'clock the prizes are being given by a famous actor Kevin shap las' he lives nearby and gets involved in a lot of community events gosh I've seen him on TV I'll definitely go to the prize-giving right before you hear the rest of the conversation you have some time to look at questions 8 to 10 now listen and answer questions eight to ten I've seen a list of plays that are being performed this week and I'd like to know which is suitable for my children and which ones my husband and I might go to how old are your children five and seven what about the mystery of Muldoon that's aimed at five to ten year olds so if I take my children I can expect them to enjoy it more than I do I think so if you'd like something for yourself and your husband and leave your children with a babysitter you might like to see fire and flood it's about events that really happened in Stretton 200 years ago and children might find it rather frightening oh thanks for the warning and finally what about silly sailor that's a comedy and it's for young and old in fact it won an award in the Stretton drama festival a couple of months ago okay well goodbye and thanks for all the information I'm looking forward to the festival goodbye that is the end of section one you now have half a minute to check your answers turn to section 2 section 2 you will hear a guide at an art museum talking to a group of visitors first you have some time to look at questions 11 to 16 now listen carefully and answer questions 11 to 16 good morning and welcome to the museum one with a remarkable range of exhibits which I'm sure you'll enjoy my name's Greg and I'll tell you about the various collections as we go around but before we go let me just give you a taste of what we have here well for one thing we have a fine collection of 20th and 21st century paintings many by very well-known artists I'm sure you'll recognize several of the paintings this is the gallery that attracts the largest number of visitors so it's best to go in early in the day before the crowds arrive then there are the 19th century paintings the museum was opened in the middle of that century and several of the artists each donated one work to get the museum started as it were so they're of special interest to us we feel closer to them than to other works the sculpture gallery has a number of fine exhibits but I'm afraid it's currently closed for refurbishment you'll need to come back next year to see it properly but a number of the sculptures have been moved to other parts of the museum around the world is a temporary exhibition you've probably seen something about it on TV or in the newspapers it's created a great deal of interest because it presents objects from every continent and many countries and provides information about their social context why they were made who for and so on then there's the collection of coins this is what you might call a focused specialist collection because all the coins come from this country and were produced between two thousand and a thousand years ago and many of them were discovered by ordinary people digging their gardens and donated to the museum all our porcelain and glass was left to the museum by its founder when he died in 1878 and in the terms of his will were not allowed to add anything to that collection he believed it was perfect in itself and we don't see any reason to disagree before you hear the rest of the talk you have some time to look at questions 17 to 20 now listen and answer questions 17 to 20 okay that was something about the collections and now here's some more practical information in case you need it most of the museum facilities are downstairs in the basement so you go down the stairs here when you reach the bottom of the stairs you'll find yourself in a sitting area with comfortable chairs and sofas where you can have a rest before continuing your exploration of the museum we have a very good restaurant which serves excellent food all day in a relaxing atmosphere to reach it when you get to the bottom of the stairs go straight ahead to the far side of the sitting area then turn right into the corridor you'll see the door of the restaurant facing you if you just want a snack or if you'd like to eat somewhere with facilities for children we also have a cafe when you reach the bottom of the stairs you'll need to go straight ahead turn right into the corridor and the cafe is immediately on the right and talking about children there are baby changing facilities downstairs across the sitting area continue straight ahead along the corridor on the left and you and your baby will find the facilities on the left-hand side the cloakroom where you should leave coats umbrellas and any large bags is on the left-hand side of the sitting area it's through the last door before you come to the corridor there are toilets on every floor but in the basement there the first rooms on the left when you get down there okay now if you've got anything to leave in the cloakroom please do that now and then we'll start our tour that is the section two you now have half a minute to check your answers now turn to section 3 section 3 you will hear a student called Johanna talking to her new supervisor about some research she has done on psychology and music first you have some time to look at questions 21 to 26 now listen carefully and answer questions 21 to 26 hi Joanna good to meet you now before we discuss your new research project I'd like to hear something about the psychology study you did last year for your master's degree so how did you choose your subjects for that well I had six subjects all professional musicians and all-female three were violinists and there was also a cello player and a pianist and a flute player they were all very highly regarded in the music world and they've done quite extensive tours in different continents and quite a few had won prizes and competitions as well and they were quite young weren't they yes between 25 and 29 and the mean was 27.8 I wasn't specifically looking for artists who'd produce recordings but this is something that's just taken for granted these days and they all had right now you collected your data through telephone interviews didn't you yes I realized if I was going to interview leading musicians it had only be possible over the phone because they're so busy I recorded them using a telephone recording adapter I'd been worried about the quality but it worked out all right I managed at least a 30-minute interview with each subject sometimes longer did doing it on the phone make it more stressful I thought it might um it was all quite informal though and in fact they seemed very keen to talk and I don't think using the phone meant I got less rich data rather the opposite in fact interesting and you were looking at how performers dress for concert performances that's right my research investigated the way players see their role as a musician and how this is linked to the type of clothing they decide to wear but that focus didn't emerge him when I started I was more interested in trying to investigate the impact of what was worn on those listening and also whether someone like a violinist might adopt a different style of clothing from save someone playing the flute or the trumpet hmm it's interesting that the choice of dress is up to the individual isn't it yes you'd expect there to be rules about it in orchestras but that's quite rare before you hear the rest of the discussion you have some time to look at questions 27 to 30 now listen and answer questions 27 to 30 you only had women performers in your study was that because male musicians are less worried about fashion I think a lot of the men are very much influenced by fashion but in social terms the choices they have are more limited if they'd really upset audiences if they strayed away from quite narrow boundaries hmm.well popular music has quite different expectations did you read Mike Frost's article about the dress of women performers in popular music no well he points out that a lot of female singers and musicians in popular music tend to dress down in performances and wear less feminine clothes like jeans instead of skirts and he suggests this is because otherwise they'd just be discounted as trivial but you could argue they're just wearing what's practical I mean a pop music concert is usually a energetic affair yes he doesn't make that point but I think you're probably right I was interested by the effect of the audience at a musical performance when it came to the choice of dress the subjects I interviewed felt this was really important it's all to do with what we understand by performance as a public event they believed the audience had certain expectations and it was up to them as performers to fulfill these expectations to show a kind of esteem they weren't afraid of looking as if they'd made an effort to look good I think in the past the audience would have had those expectations of one another – but that's not really the case now not in the UK anyway no and I also got interested in what sports scientists are doing – with regard to clothing musicians are quite vulnerable physically aren't they because the movements they carry out a very intensive and repetitive so I'd imagine some features of sports clothing could safeguard the players from the potentially dangerous effects of this sort of thing yes but musicians don't really consider it they avoid clothing that obviously risk their movements but that's as far as they go anyway coming back to your own research do you have any idea where you're going from here I was thinking of doing a study using an audience included that is the end of section 3 you now have half a minute to check your answers turn to Section four section four you will hear part of a lecture about a way of reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere first you have some time to look at questions 31 to 40 now listen carefully and answer questions 31 to 40 as we saw in the last lecture a major cause of climate change is the rapid rise in the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere over the last century if we could reduce the amount of co2 perhaps the rate of climate change could also be slowed down one potential method involves enhancing the role of the soil that plants grow in with regard to absorbing co2 Ratan Lao a soil scientist from Ohio State University in the USA claims that the world's agricultural soils could potentially absorb 13% of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere the equivalent of the amount released in the last 30 years and research is going on into how this might be achieved now first came to the idea that soil might be valuable in this way not through an interest in climate change but rather out of concern for the land itself and the people dependent on it Carbon rich soil is dark crumbly and fertile and retains some water but erosion can occur if soil is dry which is a likely effect if it contains inadequate amounts of carbon erosion is of course bad for people trying to grow crops or breed animals on that terrain in the 1970s and 80s Lao was studying soils in Africa so devoid of organic matter that the ground had become extremely hard like cement there he met a pioneer in the study of global warming who suggested that carbon from the soil had moved into the atmosphere this is now looking increasingly likely let me explain for millions of years carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere have been regulated in part by a natural partnership between plants and microbes tiny organisms in the soil plants absorb co2 from the air and transform it into sugars and other carbon-based substances while a proportion of these carbon products remain in the plant some transfer from the roots to fungi and soil microbes which store the carbon in the soil the invention of Agriculture some 10,000 years ago disrupted these ancient soil building processes and led to the loss of carbon from the soil when humans started draining the natural topsoil and plowing it up for planting they exposed the Buried carbon to oxygen this created carbon dioxide and released it into the air and in some places grazing by domesticated animals has removed all vegetation releasing carbon into the air tons of carbon have been stripped from the world soils where it's needed and pumped into the atmosphere so what can be done researchers are now coming up with evidence that even modest changes to farming can significantly help to reduce the amount of carbon in the atmosphere some growers have already started using an approach known as regenerative agriculture this aims to boost the fertility of soil and keep it moist through established practices these include keeping fields planted all year round and increasing the variety of plants being grown strategies like these can significantly increase the amount of carbon stored in the soil so agricultural researchers are now building a case for their use in combating climate change one American investigation into the potential for storing co2 on agricultural lands is taking place in California soil scientist Wendy silver of the University of California Berkeley is conducting a first-of-its-kind study on a large cattle farm in the state she and her students are testing the effects on carbon storage of the compost that is created from waste both agricultural including manure and corn stalks and waste produced in gardens such as leaves branches and lawn trimmings in Australia soil ecologist christine jones is testing another promising soil enrichment strategy jones and 12 farmers are working to build up soil carbon by cultivating grasses that stay green all year round like composting the approach has already been proved experimental e Jones now hopes to show that it can be applied on working farms and that the resulting carbon capture can be accurately measured it's hoped in the future that projects such as these will demonstrate the role that farmers and other land managers can play in reducing the harmful effects of greenhouse gases for example in countries like the United States where most farming operations use large applications of fertilizer changing such long-standing habits will require a change of system rattan Lao argues that farmers should receive payment not just for the corn or beef they produce but also for the carbon they can store in their soil another study being carried out that is the Section four you now have half a minute to check your answers that is the end of the listening test now have 10 minutes to transfer your answers to the answer sheet